Difference between revisions of "EyeWire Dictionary"
|Line 33:||Line 33:|
The likelihood that a [[EyeWire_Dictionary#S|segment]] belongs to a certain
The likelihood that a [[EyeWire_Dictionary#S|segment]] belongs to a certain , based on how many players have included it in their trace.
Revision as of 00:05, 4 February 2015
Administrator (Admin): A user who works for/with EyeWire HQ. Abilities include but are not limited to: editing cubes, moderating the chat and forum, declaring cells complete, editing the blog and wiki, and running in game competitions.
Amacrine Cell: A type of neuron in the retina. Bipolar cells make synapses onto them, and they make synapses onto ganglion cells. There is no true distinction between the dendrites and axon of an amacrine cell, the projections may be referred to as neurites (or Branches, for accuracy, or dendrites, for simplicity.
Bipolar Cell: A type of neuron in the retina. Photoreceptors and horizontal cells make synapses onto them and they make synapses onto amacrine and ganglion cells. Their name comes from their appearance, as they have one projection on each side of the cell body.
Black Spill: An artifact in the data, where a piece of a branch of a cell becomes dark and hard to trace. The segments of a black spill are often very small.
Branch: A synonym for Neurite.
Cell Body: The large, bulbous part of the neuron, which contains the nucleus and most of the other organelles in a neuron.
Connectome: A complete wiring diagram of an organism’s neurons. Connectomics is the study of the connectome of an organism. Connectionism is a theory that the neural processes that occur in an organism are dictated by the connections between the neurons.
Consensus: The trace that is accepted to be true for a cube. It will change with more player submissions, and can be changed by scythes and admins. A weight of no less than 3.0 is required for a consensus to form on mystery cells, and no less than 2.0 for lightning cells.
Evil Cubes: A challenge in EyeWire in which players trace exceptionally hard cubes, handpicked by other players or admins.
Explore Mode: A feature in EyeWire that allows the players to trace in a third color, different than that of their trace and the seed, and can chose to include or omit the “explored” segments from their final trace.
Ganglion Cell: The neurons responsible for transferring information from the retina to the brain.
Glial Cell: The cells that support and protect neurons. They hold the neurons in place, supply them nutrients and oxygen, insulate them from one another, destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.
GrimReaper: An all powerful being in EyeWire. Has the abilities to remove mergers, extend branches, gives points to those who lend a hand, and takes them away from those who work to hinder scientific progress
Heat Map: A function in EyeWire used by scouts, scythes, and admins to visualize information about the cell, using each cube as a single data point.
Hunt: A challenge in which a cell is chosen and mergers are added to it. Players must find and report all mergers in order to win.
JAM-B (J) Cell: A subcategory of direction-selective ganglion cells that have an asymmetric dendritic arbor.
Lightning Cell (Level 2): A cell that is more difficult than mystery cells. Points earned on these cells are doubled. The accuracy requirement for trailblazing on these cells is 80%.
Lightning Tutorial: A series of cubes picked to train players to deal with the potential problems they will run into in Lightning cells.
Marathon: A challenge in which all players have to work together, with admins, to try to complete a cell in under 24 hours.
Mentor: A user who is able to join others in their cubes in order to help them overcome a difficulty or teach them how to play.
Merger: An error in the reconstruction of the cell in which a part of another cell has been mistakenly included in the cell in question. This could be caused by faulty segmentation, a problem in the seed of a cube, artifacts in the image data, mistakes by the players, or a combination of any of the reasons.
Misalignment: An artifact in the data in which the slides appear to shift over. The shift might be sudden or there might be a white slide in between the two sides of the misalignment.
Moderator: Players who enforce the rules of chat e.g. informing players when they break the rules and muting players who intentionally break the rules.
Mystery Cell (Level 1): Cells that are available for all to play. Once the basic tutorials are finished, they will play in one of these cells.
Neurite: A projection from the cell body of a neuron, which could either be dendrites or the axon.
Nub: A projection off the branch of a neuron that is short any may serve to form a synapse.
Overcoloring: A calculation of the percentage of total volume added that was not a part of the cell being traced.
Overview: The 3D representation of cells in EyeWire.
Scout: A player who looks for mergers, missing branches, and missing nubs in the reconstruction of cells.
Scythe: A player who corrects the mergers, missing branches, and missing nubs in the reconstruction of cells.
Scythe Vision: A heat map that shows what cubes have been scouted, scythed, frozen, etc.
Seed: The initial segments that are given to a player when entering a cube. These segments are chosen based on the segments in the parent cube.
Segment: Subdivisions of the data which an artificial intelligence has decided belong together. Players must chose all the segments belonging to the neuron when tracing a cube.
Self-Touch: A self-touch is a non-synaptic contact between a cells neurites.
Soma: A synonym for Cell Body.
Spawned: A cube is spawned when the branches of a previous cube are extended to the walls of that cube. The spawned cube continues the extension of this branch.
Starburst Amacrine Cell: A type of amacrine cell that plays a role in directional selectivity.
Starburst Challenge: A challenge in EyeWire where players were mapping as many Starburst Amacrine Cells as possible. This challenge has since been completed.
Synapse: A connection between the axon of one cell and the dendrite of another. In chemical synapses, neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic cell’s axon and are absorbed by the postsynaptic cell’s dendrite. In electrical synapses, an action potential flows directly from the axon of one cell to the dendrite of another through a shared cytoplasm.
Task: A synonym for cube.
Trailblazing: Being the first person to complete a cube. For mystery cells, this requires 70% accuracy and will result in 50 points immediately, and more points after two others have traced the cube. For lightning cells, this requires 80% accuracy and the 2X multiplier that is applied to normal play in lightning cells is still applied.
Trainee: A player who has not passed the basic tutorial yet.
Undercoloring: a calculation of the percentage of total branches missing from a player’s traces.
Volume: The area in the dataset in which a cube resides. Many cubes can exist in one volume, but each volume is different. While no two volumes are the same, each volume overlaps with its neighbors.
WebGL: A web technology that brings 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. It is used to render the overview and the 3D part of a cube.
Weight: The total amount of weighted validations made on a cube. A disenfranchised player has a weight of 0.1 and a regular player has weight one. When scything a cube, one has a weight of two. When reaping a cube, one has a weight of one million.